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Edorium Journal of

Disability and Rehabilitation

 
     
Review Article
 
Do maladaptive beliefs delay whiplash associated disorders (WAD): A systematic review
Erika Gabriela Macias1, Vasileios Georgopoulos2, Alan Taylor3
1Graduate student, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, The University of Nottingham, University Park, NG7 2RD, Nottingham, UK
2Doctoral Researcher, School of Medicine, Division of Academic Rheumatology, The University of Nottingham, University Park, NG7 2RD, Nottingham, UK
3Assistant Professor, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, The University of Nottingham, University Park, NG7 2RD, Nottingham, UK

Article ID: 100040D05EM2018
doi: 10.5348/100040D05EM2018RA

Corresponding Author:
Erika Gabriela Macias
Andador de la Yuca 88, Unidad Ponciano Arriaga
Soledad de Graciano Sánchez, San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosi, Mexico, 78437

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How to cite this article
Macias EG, Georgopoulos V, Taylor A. Do maladaptive beliefs delay whiplash associated disorders (WAD): A systematic review. Edorium J Disabil Rehabil 2018;4:100040D05EM2018.


ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study is to try to establish if maladaptive beliefs effect recovery times and poor outcomes in whiplash associated disorders (WAD). In May 2017 the following databases were searched from their inception until June 2017: SPORT Discuss, CINAHL, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane, AMED, Embase. A combination of sensitive search strategies was used for locating articles on maladaptive beliefs and WAD. Hand-searching of relevant journals and citation tracking were used to maximise the identified study pool. A total of 189 references were retrieved and an additional three studies were identified through different sources, 178 remained after the removal of duplicates. For 43 references, the full text was assessed, and 7 studies were included. The methodological quality was assessed independently by two assessors. Data extraction was carried out using a standardised data extraction form. Most articles scored a high overall quality and fourteen percent (14%) of articles (1 out of 7) were rated with moderate overall quality. Meta-analysis was not undertaken due to the heterogeneity of prognostic factors, outcome measures and methods used. Four out of the seven studies presented a correlation between catastrophising and disability in at least one follow-up time point (3, 6 or 12 months) whilst three studies found a correlation between fear-avoidance and disability. Four of the studies showed an association between maladaptive beliefs (catastrophising or fear avoidance) and pain and two found a negative effect. Our findings show that outcomes, such as pain and disability, were found to be associated with maladaptive beliefs (catastrophising and fear avoidance).

Keywords: Catastrophising, Fear avoidance, Whiplash


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Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank Paapa Kwesi Ampiah, for the support with the literature data extraction.
Author Contributions
Erika Gabriela Macias – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Final approval of the version to be published
Vasileios Georgopoulos – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Alan Taylor – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Guarantor of Submission
The corresponding author is the guarantor of submission.
Source of Support
None
Consent Statement
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this study.
Conflict of Interest
Author declares no conflict of interest.
Copyright
© 2018 Erika Gabriela Macias et al. This article is distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author(s) and original publisher are properly credited. Please see the copyright policy on the journal website for more information.



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